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July 2014
30
Photo of Port-au-Prince Haiti around the time of the Exposition internationale du bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince or International Exposition organized by Haitian President Dumarsais Estimé in 1949. 
Image: Courtesy of Delcampe. 

Photo of Port-au-Prince Haiti around the time of the Exposition internationale du bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince or International Exposition organized by Haitian President Dumarsais Estimé in 1949. 

Image: Courtesy of Delcampe

July 2014
28
Today in Haitian History - July 28, 1915 - Beginning of a 19 years U.S. Marine Occupation of Haiti. 
Following the bloody assassination of Haitian President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam by an angry mob in Port-Au-Prince (in response to the equally bloody slaying of political prisoners days before), the United States felt it had no choice but to occupy the country to put an end to the violence and anarchy that had characterize Haitian politics since the late 19th century. 
While these were certainly part of Washington’s overall considerations, most historians have pointed out that, from the beginning of the 1900s onwards, the United States attempted to pressure different Haitian governments into accepting a “peaceful” intervention in the country. In the 1910s, the United States battled with French interests for the control of the Banque Nationale d’Haiti. A few years before, it also took control of the neighbouring Dominican Republic customs, thus becoming arbitrator of the country’s economy (and occupying it officially as of 1916). More importantly however, there were many (misguided) accounts that Haiti was on the verge of being controlled by German merchants who were a small but powerful community in the island. 
By 1915, one more incident was needed for the United States to enter Haiti and give its intervention the appearance of respecting international law. This “opportunity” came on the 28th of July and Marine forces occupied Haiti for the next 19 years.  
Image: Courtesy of Corbis Images. //// Source and Further Reading: X and X 

Today in Haitian History - July 28, 1915 - Beginning of a 19 years U.S. Marine Occupation of Haiti. 

Following the bloody assassination of Haitian President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam by an angry mob in Port-Au-Prince (in response to the equally bloody slaying of political prisoners days before), the United States felt it had no choice but to occupy the country to put an end to the violence and anarchy that had characterize Haitian politics since the late 19th century. 

While these were certainly part of Washington’s overall considerations, most historians have pointed out that, from the beginning of the 1900s onwards, the United States attempted to pressure different Haitian governments into accepting a “peaceful” intervention in the country. In the 1910s, the United States battled with French interests for the control of the Banque Nationale d’Haiti. A few years before, it also took control of the neighbouring Dominican Republic customs, thus becoming arbitrator of the country’s economy (and occupying it officially as of 1916). More importantly however, there were many (misguided) accounts that Haiti was on the verge of being controlled by German merchants who were a small but powerful community in the island. 

By 1915, one more incident was needed for the United States to enter Haiti and give its intervention the appearance of respecting international law. This “opportunity” came on the 28th of July and Marine forces occupied Haiti for the next 19 years.  

Image: Courtesy of Corbis Images. //// Source and Further Reading: X and X 

July 2014
28
Hello, here is another edition of our weekly bulletin.
o1. First of all, we are very pleased to say that this blog has reached over 1,100+ followers. We are not quite sure how it all happened, but we are still very happy it did. At any rate, thank you very much for being here and we wish a warm welcome to all our new followers. =) 
o2. As you may already know, today is the 99th anniversary of the U.S. Occupation of Haiti. Only one year separates us from the centenary of the Occupation and there seem to be many events scheduled for the upcoming year. As much as the history student in me has mixed feelings about commemorations, I still think it important that we try to keep you updated on those events.
o3. It has come to our attention that we never actually completed the page on the chronology of the Haitian Revolution (lol). I suppose other priorities kept us from doing so but we hope to do it sometime this week and make a special blog entry on the matter.   
That’s all. Thank you for reading and have a wonderful week. =)

Hello, here is another edition of our weekly bulletin.

o1. First of all, we are very pleased to say that this blog has reached over 1,100+ followers. We are not quite sure how it all happened, but we are still very happy it did. At any rate, thank you very much for being here and we wish a warm welcome to all our new followers. =) 

o2. As you may already know, today is the 99th anniversary of the U.S. Occupation of Haiti. Only one year separates us from the centenary of the Occupation and there seem to be many events scheduled for the upcoming year. As much as the history student in me has mixed feelings about commemorations, I still think it important that we try to keep you updated on those events.

o3. It has come to our attention that we never actually completed the page on the chronology of the Haitian Revolution (lol). I suppose other priorities kept us from doing so but we hope to do it sometime this week and make a special blog entry on the matter.   

That’s all. Thank you for reading and have a wonderful week. =)

July 2014
28

To “celebrate” the 99th anniversary of the U.S. Occupation of Haiti (1915-1934), here is a brief selection of primary documents that relate to it in some form. Of course many documents were omitted from this list as they are difficult to access online, most notably the Robert Moton Commission of 1930.

* What are primary sources? How do I read them and replace them in their proper historical contingency?

Occupation era (1915-1934) documents

  • Haitian-American Treaty of September 1915 - (EN)
  • Constitution of 1918  - (FR)
  • The Truth about Haiti: An NAACP Investigation by James Weldon Johnson, 1920 - (EN)
  • Self-determining Haiti by James Weldon Johnson, 1920 - (EN)
  • Eleventh Annual Report of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1921 - (EN)
  • Inquiry Into Occupation and Administration of Haiti and Santo Domingo (Record of proceedings of a court of inquiry), 1921 - (EN)
  • Conclusions and Recommendations by the Committee of Six Disinterested Americans, 1926 - (EN)
  • Ainsi Parla l’Oncle by Jean Price-Mars, 1928 - (FR
  • United States Department of State / Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, 1930 - (EN)
  • Constitution of 1932 -  (FR)
  • Constitution of 1935 - (FR)
  • En posant les jalons by Sténio Vincent, 1939 - (FR)

Legend: FR = Français / EN = English  /// Original Images: Courtesy of Corbis Images, Haiti Reference and Wikimedia Commons.

July 2014
26
Members of the Haitian army waiting for the arrival of President François Duvalier, Cap-Haïtien, 1968.
Image: Courtesy of the Centre International de Documentation et d’Information Haïtienne, Caribéenne et Afro-canadienne (CIDIHCA).

Members of the Haitian army waiting for the arrival of President François Duvalier, Cap-Haïtien, 1968.

Image: Courtesy of the Centre International de Documentation et d’Information Haïtienne, Caribéenne et Afro-canadienne (CIDIHCA).

July 2014
26
Tag your posts!
Hello, this is just a small reminder to ask you to tag your posts on Haitian history. We would be very glad to reblog all content that relates to Haitian history but this is made difficult by the fact that many people do not use tags. Hence, in the future, add the tags #haitian history and/or #haitian history blog to your posts if you want us to reblog them on HH! 
* Of course, unless your particular blog post relates to dates or falls under the category of “general knowledge,” we prefer to reblog posts that refer to academic sources, if only for further reading. For picture posts, we appreciate a mention of the original website or series where you obtained the images, unless these photos are yours or are part of the public domain.

Tag your posts!

Hello, this is just a small reminder to ask you to tag your posts on Haitian history. We would be very glad to reblog all content that relates to Haitian history but this is made difficult by the fact that many people do not use tags. Hence, in the future, add the tags #haitian history and/or #haitian history blog to your posts if you want us to reblog them on HH! 

* Of course, unless your particular blog post relates to dates or falls under the category of “general knowledge,” we prefer to reblog posts that refer to academic sources, if only for further reading. For picture posts, we appreciate a mention of the original website or series where you obtained the images, unless these photos are yours or are part of the public domain.

July 2014
26
A man posing with an ambulance vehicle for the Hôpital général of Port-au-Prince, 1934.
Image: Courtesy of the Centre International de Documentation et d’Information Haïtienne, Caribéenne et Afro-canadienne (CIDIHCA).

A man posing with an ambulance vehicle for the Hôpital général of Port-au-Prince, 1934.

Image: Courtesy of the Centre International de Documentation et d’Information Haïtienne, Caribéenne et Afro-canadienne (CIDIHCA).

#Haiti   #Haitian history   #History   #Archive Photo   #1930s   #1934   #CIDIHCA   
July 2014
24
The “Villa Gosseline” (shown on photo) was the governmental residence of Haitian president  Michel Oreste (May 1913 to January 1914). The exact date this photo was taken is unknown. 
Image: Courtesy of Duke University.

The “Villa Gosseline” (shown on photo) was the governmental residence of Haitian president  Michel Oreste (May 1913 to January 1914). The exact date this photo was taken is unknown. 

Image: Courtesy of Duke University.

July 2014
23

In the sequence of revolutions that remade the Atlantic world from 1776 to 1825, the Haitian Revolution is rarely given its due, yet without it there is much that cannot be accounted for. The revolutions—American, French, Haitian, and Spanish-American—should be seen as interconnected, with each helping to radicalize the next.

July 2014
22
Haitian President Antoine Simon (1908-1911) with some of his officers, 1909.
Image: Courtesy of the Centre International de Documentation et d’Information Haïtienne, Caribéenne et Afro-canadienne (CIDIHCA).

Haitian President Antoine Simon (1908-1911) with some of his officers, 1909.

Image: Courtesy of the Centre International de Documentation et d’Information Haïtienne, Caribéenne et Afro-canadienne (CIDIHCA).

July 2014
22
Today in Haitian History - July 22, 1795 - Treaty of Basel signed between France and Spain. 
While this second Treaty of Basel guaranteed the end of hostilities between the French Convention and the Spanish Crown, for both countries’ overseas colonies, the Treaty had larger implications as Spain ceded its share of Hispaniola (modern day Dominican Republic) to France.
In January 1801, assuming that Santo Domingo was now part of the French Empire (although never completely integrated to the latter), Toussaint Louverture pressured the local Spanish administration to give it up fully to his (and thus French) authority. Still in 1801 (July), Louverture proceeded in creating a Constitution for the entire island of Hispaniola in which he abolished slavery on both sides of the island and imposed new laws. Louverture’s gesture did come to cause much animosity between Dominicans and Haitians in later years. 
Map: Courtesy of The Louverture Project.

Today in Haitian History - July 22, 1795 - Treaty of Basel signed between France and Spain. 

While this second Treaty of Basel guaranteed the end of hostilities between the French Convention and the Spanish Crown, for both countries’ overseas colonies, the Treaty had larger implications as Spain ceded its share of Hispaniola (modern day Dominican Republic) to France.

In January 1801, assuming that Santo Domingo was now part of the French Empire (although never completely integrated to the latter), Toussaint Louverture pressured the local Spanish administration to give it up fully to his (and thus French) authority. Still in 1801 (July), Louverture proceeded in creating a Constitution for the entire island of Hispaniola in which he abolished slavery on both sides of the island and imposed new laws. Louverture’s gesture did come to cause much animosity between Dominicans and Haitians in later years. 

Map: Courtesy of The Louverture Project.

July 2014
21

Anonymous asked

I like you new layout and I really enjoy the fact that you guys really invest time in the overall apparence of your blog.

Hello. Yes, we do. Glad you like it. Many thanks. 

#ask